Renewable Energy
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Biomass / Landfill
Hydro Electric power
Wave Power
Water
Rain Water Harvesting
Household Water Pollution
Constructed Wetlands & Reed beds
Perma-Culture in the Garden
Why Organic Gardening?
Vermicompost
Think Indigenous!
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Recycling Agricultural Waste
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Biomass energy is currently the largest renewable energy contributor in South Africa, estimated at about 9 percent (some data indicates as high as 14%). Most rural households and several hundred thousand low-income urban households rely on fuelwood for cooking and space heating. Biomass by-products are used in boilers by the sugar and paper industries to generate electricity. The South African government and other large stakeholders are currently developing the capacity to produce liquid fuels from biomass, with an estimated potential of 20 percent of the national liquid fuels requirement (45.7 PJ). The production of bio-ethanol, for possible use as a safer household fuel, is also receiving increased attention. Extensive use of biomass raises significant environmental concerns. The large-scale use of bioenergy would require vast areas of land to be converted to ‘energy crops’.



Landfill sites generate methane gas as a result of the decomposition of the biomass components in municipal waste. Landfill gas has a potential for 7.2 TWh of electricity generation, perhaps growing to 10.8 TWh by 2040. If the gas were to be used for process heat, then the energy extraction would be higher.